What is the role of cryptography in information security?

What is the role of cryptography in information security?

February 24, 2023 Off By Lennon

Cryptography has evolved to be a comprehensive layer for protection against all digital transformation activities. It is an integral part of cyber resilience andsafeguards communications.
What is Cryptography?
Cryptography is one of the most effective ways for organizations to protect their storage systems while in transit or at rest.
Sensitive data includes customer PII, employee PII and proprietary information. Because cryptography relies on cryptographic mechanisms, cryptography is essential for protecting sensitive data.
Cryptography is opaque and makes sensitive information inaccessible. This prevents corrupt people from using it to commit malicious acts.
Different types of cryptography
SKC (Secret Key Cryptography), is symmetric encryption that uses one key to decrypt and encrypt for privacy and secrecy.
PKC (public key cryptography): Asymmetric encryption is also known by public-key cryptography. One key is used to decryption and one is used for encryption. The most common uses of key distribution are identification, non-repudiation and key distribution.
Hash Functions are a mathematical change that “encrypts” information in an irreversible manner, resulting in a digital fingerprint. This protocol is primarily concerned with message integrity.
What is the difference between symmetrical and asymmetric cryptography, you ask?
Symmetric cryptography
Asymmetric cryptography
Symmetric encryption uses a unique key that must be distributed among the recipients of information.

Asymmetric encryption uses a pair of private and public keys to encrypt and decode communications when they are being transmitted.

It encrypts and decrypts communication with a key. This makes it easier but less secure.

It decrypts and encrypts the message with two keys.

It requires a secure way to pass the key from one person to another.

It is more secure than symmetric key encryption but it is slower.

The encrypted text is smaller or the same size as the plain text.

The encryption text is equal or greater in size than the plain text.

Symmetric key encryption uses less resources than asymmetric key encryption.

Resource utilization is high in asymmetric key encryption.

Role of cryptography in Information Security
Cryptography, among other information security goals, ensures secrecy and consistency, identification, as well as non-repudiation.
Cryptography is used to protect the confidentiality of information.

Confidentiality is essential to protect the privacy of those whose sensitive information is kept secret. Encryption is the only way to protect data while it is being stored and sent. Even if the transferor storage media is hacked, encrypted data is mostly worthless to unauthorized persons without the right decryption key.
Data integrity

Integrity in a security environment refers only to the accuracy and completeness of information management and related information.
Integrating a system means that data has been transported and processed in controlled environments. Data remains unchanged after processing.
Cryptography uses message digests and hash function techniques to preserve data integrity. By providing digital keys and codes, the receiver can be sure that the data received has not been altered during communication.
Assuring the correct sender or receiver

Cryptography is a way to ensure that both the sender and receiver are authentic and have correct information about their origin and destination. Authenticity can only be achieved through a unique key exchange. The sender uses this key to verify their identity. A login and passcode are the most common, but contactless cards, eye retinas, voice commands, fingerprints scan, and voice commands can all be used.
Both the sender as well as the recipient are responsible for non-repudiation

Non-repudiation is the affirmation of a transmitted message. This concept ensures that the receiver cannot deny the sending of information by using digital certificates to prevent the sender denial of authenticity.
Ensures Data availability

Cryptography contributes to data availability because it ensures that only those who have the right permissions can access networks and retrieve information promptly and reliably.
For data security, robust cryptography solutions are required

Cryptography can help protect intellectual property from cyber threats.
Cryptography applications
Secure Communications – Cryptography is used commonly to encrypt communications